The Sueve range is a relatively young formation, having been uplifted some 35 million years ago. The Ordovician sandstones that once formed a part of the range have since been eroded by water, and all but vanished, except for the low ridge of the Fito hills. The majority of the current Sueve is composed of Carboniferous mountain limestone, which forms a karst landscape in the high central region, on and around Picu Pienzu. The characteristic formations of karst are in evidence -clusters of sink-holes, caves, small dry gorges, and the striking vertical fluting of rock-faces.

Mines at the north-eastern end of the range used to extract fluoride, butare no longer operational.